The NDC in the United States has set a target of reducing its emissions by 26-28% from 2005 levels by 2025, including land use, land use changes and forestry (UTCATF). The CTU estimates that the target of reducing emissions from 26% to 28%, including lulucf, is expected to result in a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 22-29% from 2005 levels outside UTCATF, depending on whether the UTCATF decline is at or below projections. However, the CAR will be different. EU heads of state and government agreed that the target for non-EU ETS sectors would be 30% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 2005. The European Commission has proposed specific targets and new rules for the ESD between 2021 and 2030. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures are expected to rise by 3.2oC by the end of the 21st century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, annual emissions must be below 25 Gigaton (Gt) by 2030. With the current commitments of November 2019, emissions by 2030 will be 56 Gt CO2e, twice the environmental target. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, an annual reduction in emissions of 7.6% is needed between 2020 and 2030. The four main emitters (China, the United States, the EU-27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, excluding emissions due to land use changes such as deforestation. China`s emissions increased by 1.6% in 2018 to a peak of 13.7 Gt CO2 equivalent. U.S.
emissions account for 13% of global emissions and emissions have increased by 2.5% in 2018. EU emissions, which account for 8.5% of global emissions, have fallen by 1% per year over the past decade. Emissions fell by 1.3% in 2018. In 2018, 7% of India`s global emissions increased by 5.5%, but its per capita emissions are one of the lowest in the G20.  Today, the CAR is responsible for 55-60% of all greenhouse gas emissions in the EU. The most important sector of the car is land transport, which is responsible for more than one third of all ESD emissions. Emissions from buildings, agriculture and other sectors result. Unlike the ETS, the agencies regulated by the Car are Member States. Each country has an annual reduction target for the CAR sector. If they fail to do so, they will have to buy CAR certificates from other Member States or use some of the available `flexibilities`.